The ten conditions of viraha, separation, are described in Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi:
pralāpo vyādhir unmade
moho mṛtyur daśā daśa
Ten conditions arise in viraha: (1) cintā (anxious consideration), (2) jāgara (sleeplessness), (3) udvega (agitation), (4) tānava (emaciation of the body), (5) malināṅgatā (discolouring of bodily limbs), (6) pralāpa (incoherent speech), (7) vyādhi (being stricken with a tormenting ailment), (8) unmāda (madness), (9) moha (bewilderment) and (10) mṛtyu (death, or being unconscious for a long time). At the stage of mohana, an extraordinary condition manifests in Śrī Rādhā, in which She experiences extreme anguish of separation from Kṛṣṇa.
jāgara, udvega, cintā, tānavāṅga-malinatā,
pralāpa, unmāda āra vyādhi
moha, mṛtyu, daśā daśa, tāhe rādhā suvivaśa,
pāila duḥkha-kulera avadhi
While Śrī Rādhā suffers from the scorching poison of viraha, She expresses Her transcendental emotions, as described in Jagannātha-vallabha-nāṭaka (3.9):
prema-ccheda-rujo ’vagacchati harir nāyaṁ na ca prema vā
sthānāsthānam avaiti nāpi madano jānāti no durbalāḥ
anyo veda na cānya-duḥkham akhilaṁ no jīvanaṁ vāśravaṁ
dvi-trīṇy eva dināni yauvanam idaṁ hā hā vidhe kā gatiḥ
Śrī Hari does not understand the pain of separation in prema. In fact, prema does not know anything about who is deserving of itself and who is not. Kāmadeva also torments us, knowing us to be weak. It is impossible for anyone to understand another’s misery. Life is so fleeting – it has no certainty – and youth remains only two or three days. Alas! Alas! What kind of arrangement of Vidhātā (the Creator) is this?
sakhī bale dhairya dhara, āsibe nāgara-vara,
vyākula haile kivā phala
rādhā bale ohe sakhi, patha āra nāhi lakhi’,
prema-ccheda roga ye bāḍila
latā vāṅcāite hari, nā āsila madhupurī,
prema nā bujhila sthānāsthāna
niṭhura kānura preme, pa’ḍe gelāma mahābhrame,
madana tāhāte hāne bāṇa
duḥkha nā bujhila sakhi, jīvana cañcala lakhi,
tāte e yauvana-śobhā yāya
āra ki nāgaramaṇi, e braje āsibe dhani,
hā hā vidhi! ki habe upāya
Śrī Rāya Rāmānanda gives the following description in his Jagannātha-vallabha-nāṭaka. Once Śrī Rādhā and Her sakhīs entered the Vṛndāvana forest. The sakhīs began to describe the sweetness of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s beauty with verses appropriate for pūrva-rāga, such as so ’yaṁ yuvā yuvati-citta-vihaṅga-śākhī (Jagannātha-vallabha-nāṭaka (1.50)). Śrī Kṛṣṇa spotted Rādhā from a distance and They both became extremely restless to meet each other. Rādhā sent a love-letter to Śrī Kṛṣṇa through Śaśimukhī Sakhī. Although Śrī Kṛṣṇa became overwhelmed with emotion upon reading it, He concealed His emotion and disrespected Rādhā and the gopīs with words of indifference: “It is improper for women from good families to forsake their family honour to love Me like this.”
Śaśimukhī returned to Śrī Rādhikā, and relating all this to Her, advised Rādhā to place Her attention elsewhere. This made Śrī Rādhā attain an unbearably severe state of viraha, and She conveyed Her sentiments in this Text 12. Śrī Rādhā said to the gopī Madanikā, “Attracted by the incomparably beautiful form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, I was unable to remain patient, so I sent a letter to Him. O sakhī, what was My fault in doing that? He is certainly crooked, as His sole intention was to give Me a punishment equal to death. First He attracted Me with the sweetness of His form and now He is rejecting Me. O sakhī, you may ask, ‘Why do You feel affection for Śrī Kṛṣṇa when He is very competent in killing women?’ but what can I say? Hā hā vidhe kā gatiḥ. It is very difficult to understand why Vidhātā gives a particular punishment to a particular person. I loved Kṛṣṇa for pleasure, but instead of Vidhātā giving Me pleasure, he gave Me sorrow, and because of this My life-air is now leaving Me.” This is also described in Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Madhya-līlā 2.20) as follows:
sakhi he, nā bujhiye vidhira vidhāna
sukha lāgi’ kailuṅ prīta, haila duḥkha viparīta,
ebe yāya, nā rahe parāṇa
O sakhī, I do not understand the regulative principles given by the Creator. I loved Kṛṣṇa for happiness, but the result was just the opposite. I am now in an ocean of distress. It must be that I am now going to die, for My vital force no longer remains. This is My state of mind.
Śrī Rādhā continues, “Sakhī Madanikā, the movement of prema is crooked, like that of a snake, and it is foolish. It does not consider whether the place is suitable or unsuitable, or if the object is fit or unfit. This prema moves in a crooked way and has tied My hands, feet and neck with the ropes of that wicked one’s beauty and virtues. I am unable to untie that knot.”
Śrī Rādhā is so captivated by Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s qualities that it is impossible for Her to abandon the hope of meeting Him. Her condition is similar to that of a person who relishes the sweetness of hot sugarcane so much that he cannot give up chewing it, even if his mouth is burning. Moreover, She says, “Observing My helpless condition, Madana (Cupid) torments Me with his five arrows, thus exhausting My entire body.”
The sakhī says, “O Rādhā, take revenge on Kāmadeva (Cupid).”
Rādhā answers, “O sakhī, Kāmadeva has no body, so how can I retaliate? He tears My body asunder with His five arrows, causing Me agony, but these arrows do not take away My life.”
“Svāminī, since Śrī Kṛṣṇa is an ocean of mercy, He will certainly bestow mercy upon You. Have patience.”
Śrī Rādhā replies, “Dvi-trīṇy eva dināni yauvanam idam. Life is momentary. Who can remain alive until then? The life-span of the living entity in a human body is one hundred years, but youth only lasts a few days. Without youth, how will I serve Him? My youth only is the cause of His happiness.”
In reality, Śrī Rādhā is the eternal beloved of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. She is not an ordinary māninī, a woman who has been offended by Her lover – She is the personification of viśuddha-sattva. By her power, Yogamāyā has manifested these pastimes on the surface of the Earth for the purpose of accomplishing Kṛṣṇa’s nara-līlā. Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Ādi-līlā 4.29–30) confirms this with the following words:
mo-viṣaye gopī-gaṇera upapati-bhāve
yoga-māyā karibeka āpana-prabhāve
āmiha nā jāni tāhā, nā jāne gopī-gaṇa
duṅhāra rūpa-guṇe duṅhāra nitya hare mana
The influence of Yogamāyā will inspire the gopīs with the sentiment that I am their paramour. Neither the gopīs nor I shall notice this, for our minds will always be entranced by one another’s beauty and virtues.
Śrī Rādhā’s condition of udvega, anxiety, in separation from Śrī Kṛṣṇa is described in Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (42):
kim iha kṛṇumaḥ kasya brūmaḥ kṛtaṁ kṛtam āśayā
kathayata kathām anyāṁ dhanyām aho hṛdayeśayaḥ
kṛpaṇa kṛpaṇā kṛṣṇe tṛṣṇā ciraṁ bata lambate
What shall I do now? To whom shall I speak? What is the purpose of holding on to the futile hope of receiving His darśana? Please speak about something better. Aho! But how can I possibly stop talking about He who is contained within My heart? His gentle, sweet smile is a festival for the mind and eyes. My longing to see this form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa increases moment by moment.
ebe bala ki kariba, kāre duḥkha jānāiba,
deha dhari kṛṣṇera āśāya
kaha anya kathā dhanya, yāte citta suprasanna,
sakhi! tāhā nā haibe upāya
kṛṣṇa hṛde śu’ye āche, mṛdu madhu hāsiteche,
kṛṣṇa lakhibāra āśā, mane kaila cira vāsā,
se āśā kṛpaṇā asambhava
A variety of sentiments are arising in Śrī Rādhā’s heart. While in this state of bhāva-śābalya (the clashing and jostling of many different bhāvas, in which one bhāva suppresses another and becomes predominant), Śrī Rādhā says, “O sakhīs, what shall I do in this state of misfortune? I do not know how I will attain the darśana of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. To whom shall I express this heart-breaking anguish? In this state of separation from Kṛṣṇa, your condition is similar to Mine, so who in Vraja can I tell about the condition of My heart?”
A moment later, Śrī Rādhā conceals Her bhāva-śābalya and says (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.8.44)): “‘Āśā hi paramaṁ duḥkham – hope itself is the consummate giver of sorrow.’ For many days I have sat and waited, hoping that Kṛṣṇa would soon come, but so far He has not arrived. Now it is appropriate to give up that hope.” Here the sañcāri-bhāva called mati (resolve or wisdom) has arisen, after which amarṣa (intolerance or indignation) appears. Śrī Rādhā then says, “O sakhīs, abandon talk about ungrateful Kṛṣṇa! Please tell Me about something else.” As She says this, Kṛṣṇa manifests to Her internal vision. Wounded by the arrow of kāma, She becomes restless like a deer pierced by an arrow, and the bhāva of amarṣa becomes covered by the appearance of trāsa (fear). Distressed, She cries, “Oh, what suffering! Kṛṣṇa is lying in My heart and looking at Me with His sidelong glance, which is imbued with a sweet, gentle smile. This glance, full of laughter, is a great festival for the eyes and minds of all vraja-ramaṇīs.”
Suddenly this bhāva disappears, and great distress and remorse are aroused in Her heart. Again She laments, saying, “Sakhī, what shall I do? You tell Me to be patient, but how can I be patient? The hope of receiving Kṛṣṇa’s darśana resides in My mind, but this seems to be merely a vain hope that is fit to be abandoned.” While lamenting in this way, autsukya-bhāva (ardent desire) again arises. Restless in separation from Kṛṣṇa, Śrīmatī says, “Understanding that her hope was extremely distressful, the prostitute Piṅgalā4 abandoned it and became happy. I should also give up the hope of attaining Kṛṣṇa, but it is so difficult to stop talking about Him. Alas! The thirst for Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s darśana is increasing in My heart moment by moment. That thirst is also increasing madana (kāma), which is sweeter than sweet.”
The divyonmāda (transcendental madness) of Śrī Rādhā, who is restless in the intense fire of separation from Śrī Kṛṣṇa, is described in Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (41):
hare! tvad-ālokanam antareṇa
hā hanta! hā hanta! kathaṁ nayāmi
Alas! Alas! O Hari! O friend of the helpless! O You who are the only ocean of mercy! How can I pass these miserable days without Your darśana?
nā heriye tava mukha, hṛdaye dāruṇa, duḥkha,
e adhanya divā-niśi, kemane kāṭābe dāsī,
upāya balaha ataḥpara
Without the darśana of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, a moment seems like hundreds of yugas for Śrī Rādhā, who is burning in the fire of separation, and Her days stand still. “These days and nights, in which I cannot serve You, are not blessed.”
The word hā (meaning “alas”) in this verse expresses a distress that is full of grief. Kṛṣṇa may say (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.29.20)), “patayaś ca vaḥ, vicinvanti – O Rādhā, Your body, which is pierced by the arrows of Anaṅga (Cupid), burns in the fire of kāma, so You should search for Your husband.”
Then Śrī Rādhā will reply, “O Śyāma, I am searching for My prāṇa-priyatama Vrajendra-nandana. What need have I for a husband who gives distress? O friend of the helpless, having abandoned My husband, I have come to My priyatama (You).”
If somebody says, “Why have You come to Your priyatama?” then Śrīmatī would answer, “He is the friend of the helpless and destitute. I am helpless, so He is also My friend.”
If Kṛṣṇa says (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.29.24)), “bhartuḥ śuśrūṣaṇaṁ strīṇāṁ paro dharmaḥ – the supreme duty of women is to serve their husbands,” then, in reply, She will say (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.29.34)), “cittaṁ sukhena bhavatāpahṛtam – our minds and senses were satisfied engaging in household duties, but You stole them. O Hari, we have come to You in search of the great wealth of our hearts and senses. If there is anything wrong with this, it is Your fault.”
If Kṛṣṇa says, “You are liars! When did I steal your dharma and your hearts?” then She will reply (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.29.38)), “tan naḥ prasīda – be pleased with us, O You who are the only ocean of mercy, kindly give us a mere drop from that ocean.”
Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (40) describes Śrī Rādhā’s longing to meet Śrī Kṛṣṇa:
he deva! he dayita! he bhuvanaika-bandho!
he kṛṣṇa! he capala! he karuṇaika-sindho!
he nātha! he ramaṇa! he nayanābhirāma!
hā hā kadā nu bhavitāsi padaṁ dṛśor me
O Lord! O dearest one! O only friend of the three worlds! O Kṛṣṇa! O restless one! O only ocean of compassion! O Deva! O lover (ramaṇa)! O You who delight the eyes! Oh! When will You again be visible to My eyes? When will I receive Your darśana?
he deva, he prāṇapriya, ekamātra bandhu iha,
he kṛṣṇa, capala, kṛpā-sindhu
he nātha, ramaṇa mama, nayanera priyatama,
kabe dekhā dibe prāṇa-bandho
The sakhīs are consoling Śrī Vṛṣabhānu-nandinī, who is suffering in separation from Kṛṣṇa. Suddenly, Śrī Rādhā looks here and there and says, “O sakhī, listen! It is the sound of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s ankle-bells! But why is He not coming before My eyes? Surely that rogue is sporting with some beautiful girl in a nearby kuñja.” While speaking like this, Śrī Rādhā becomes mad (unmādinī) and in that maddened condition, She sees that Śrī Kṛṣṇa has come. On His body, though, are signs that He has been sporting with another woman. Upon seeing the marks, Śrī Rādhā becomes indignant (amarṣa) and, even though Śrī Kṛṣṇa is present before Her, She does not speak to Him but turns Her face away. Śrī Kṛṣṇa then disappears and Rādhā eagerly begins to search for Him here and there.
Restlessness resulting from a delay in seeing and attaining the desired object is called autsukya, ardent desire. When bhāvas overlap, it is known as bhāva-śābalya. When autsukya and asūyā (envy) awaken simultaneously, Śrī Rādhā sometimes criticises Kṛṣṇa, and sometimes She praises Him. Sometimes She goes into māna, sometimes She becomes proud and sometimes She praises Him sarcastically.
She says, “O Deva, because You sport with other women, You are called Deva5.” Due to this disrespect, Kṛṣṇa leaves. Repentant, Śrī Rādhā begins to speak out of an eager longing to again have His darśana. “O beloved (dayita), You are the most dear of My life. Why did You abandon Me? Please, grant Me Your darśana.”
Hearing this, Śrī Kṛṣṇa again appears. As soon as Śrī Rādhā sees Him, the bhāvas of amarṣa (indignation) and asūyā (envy) arise in Her, and She sarcastically derides Him. “O only friend of the three worlds (bhuvanaika-bandho), by playing on Your enchanting flute, You bring all women under Your control, and for this reason You are the friend of the entire world. You are the friend of all gopīs, therefore You stay near them. Isn’t it Your own fault then, that You do not come to Me?”
Hearing this, Kṛṣṇa again disappears. Not seeing Him, Śrī Rādhā says, “O Kṛṣṇa! O Śyāmasundara! You attract the hearts of the entire universe. After stealing My heart, where have You gone? Please, kindly give Me Your darśana, just once.”
Hearing this, Śrī Kṛṣṇa again comes and says, “O Priyā, I was just outside the kuñja. Please, be satisfied with Me.”
Upon hearing Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s entreaty, which is mixed with fickleness, Rādhā says, “O fickle one (capala)! O snake of the cowherd maidens! Please, go away from here, stealer of other men’s wives! I have no need for You. Go back where You came from.”
Kṛṣṇa hears this and pretends to leave. Śrī Vṛṣabhānu-nandinī understands that Her prāṇanātha has gone and offers a supplication. “O only ocean of mercy, I know that I am an offender, but You are the ocean of compassion and Your heart is soft, so please, give Me Your darśana. O lover (ramaṇa), You are always sporting with Me, so please come to the kuñja.”
Within Her mind, She understands that Kṛṣṇa has again arrived. Thus absorbed, She holds out Her arms to embrace Him but is unable to do so. Coming to external consciousness, She begins speaking in extreme distress, “O You who delight the eyes (nayanābhirāma)! O You who give joy to the eyes! My eyes are very thirsty to have Your darśana. Alas! When will You appear before them?”