Book excerpts Śrī Bhakti rasāmṛta sindhu bindu Verse 24: Overview of Gauṇa-rasa

Verse 24: Overview of Gauṇa-rasa

atha hāsyādbhuta-vīra-karuṇa-raudra-bhayānaka-bībhatsāḥ sapta-gauṇa-bhakti-rasāḥ pañca-vidha-bhakteṣv evodayante. ataeva pañca-vidha-bhaktā āśrayālambanāḥ. hāsyādīnāṁ ṣaṇṇāṁ rasānāṁ śrī-kṛṣṇaś ca śrī-kṛṣṇa-bhaktāś ca tat sambandhinaś ca viṣayālambanāḥ. bībhatsasya tu ghṛṇāspadāmedhya-māṁsa śoṇitādayo viṣayāḥ. raudra-bhayānakayoḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-śatravo ’pi viṣayāḥ. gaṇḍa-vikāśa-netra-visphārādayo yathā sambhavam anubhāvāḥ. sāttvikā api yathā-sambhavaṁ dvitrāḥ. harṣā- maryādyā vyabhicāriṇaḥ. hāso vismaya utsāhaḥ krodha-śokau bhayaṁ tathā-jugupsā cety asau bhāva-viśeṣaḥ saptadhoditaḥ. hāsyādīnām amī krameṇa sthāyibhāvāḥ. kiṁ ca vīra-rase yuddha-dāna-dayā-dharmeṣu utsāha-vaśāt yuddha-vīraḥ, dāna-vīraḥ, dayā-vīraḥ, dharma-vīra iti caturddhā vīra-rasaḥ. iti sapta gauṇa-rasāḥ. evaṁ militvā dvādaśa rasā bhavanti.

Śrī Bindu-vikāśinī-vṛtti

Hāsya (laughter), adbhuta (astonishment), vīra (heroism), karuṇa (compassion), raudra (anger), bhayānaka (fear) and bībhatsa (disgust) – these seven are known as gauṇa-bhakti-rasa. These gauṇa-rasas are seen to arise in the five types of devotees previously mentioned. Therefore the five types of devotees are the āśrayālambana of these secondary rasas. Śrī Kṛṣṇa, His devotees and persons related to His devotees are the viṣayālambana of six of these rasas beginning from hāsya (bībhatsa is excluded). Detestable objects, impure meat, blood and so on are the viṣaya of bībhatsa-rasa. The enemies of Śrī Kṛṣṇa may also be the viṣaya of raudra-rasa and bhayānaka-rasa.

Blooming of the cheeks, widening of the eyes and many other symptoms are anubhāvas. Two, three or more sāttvika-bhāvas can manifest. Harṣa (jubilation), krodha (anger) and other emotions are vyabhicāri-bhāvas. The sthāyibhāva of hāsya is laughter (hāsa), of adbhuta it is astonishment (vismaya), of vīra it is enthusiasm (utsāha), of karuṇa it is sorrow (śoka), of raudra it is anger (krodha), of bhayānaka it is fear (bhaya) and of bībhatsa it is disgust (jugupsā or ghṛṇā).

Thus there are twelve kinds of rasas – five primary (mukhya) and seven secondary (gauṇa). The seven gauṇa-rasas will now be analysed one after another. These seven types of gauṇa-bhakti-rasa are based on the seven types of gauṇa-rati. Rati is defined as the essence of the combination of the hlādinī and saṁvit potencies and thus purely composed of śuddha-sattva. Rati of this type is known as mukhya-rati. Mukhya-rati is of two types: svārthā (self-nourishing) and parārthā (nourishment-giving). The term svārthā means that when a devotee situated in one of the five primary relationships with Kṛṣṇa experiences different emotions, those emotions will act on the sthāyibhāva to nourish it in the case of favourable emotions, or to cause unbearable despondency in the case of unfavourable emotions. Because this type of rati nourishes its own sthāyibhāva it is called svārthā, self-nourishing.

When rati, instead of nourishing its own sthāyibhāva, recedes into the background and nourishes one of the seven secondary emotions, it is called parārthā, nourishment-giving. These seven secondary emotions of laughter and so on are different from svārtha-rati, which is purely composed of śuddha-sattva. But because they are connected with mukhya-parārtha-rati, the word rati has been used for them. Only when parārtha-rati in one of the five primary dominant emotions recedes into the background and nourishes the seven secondary emotions do those secondary emotions attain to the status of gauṇa-rati. When combined with their corresponding components of vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika-bhāva and vyabhicāri-bhāva, they are transformed into gauṇa-rasa.

(A) Hāsya-bhakti-rasa – Laughter

When hāsa-rati is nourished by its corresponding elements of vibhāva and so on and becomes relishable in the devotee’s heart, it is transformed into hāsya-bhakti-rasa.

Vibhāva

Ālambana

  1. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the object of parārtha-rati, or rati that nourishes the secondary emotions. As such He is the ālambana or support of this rasa because His activities give rise to laughter.
  2. Tad-anvayī – A person whose actions are connected to Kṛṣṇa and stimulate laughter may also be the ālambana or support of hāsya-rasa.

Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī says that because laughter is merely blossoming or cheerfulness of the heart, it has no viṣayālambana. The person towards whom rati is directed is the viṣaya or object of that rati. Although laughter may have an object when used in the sense of ridicule or derision, such application of the word hāsa is not acceptable here. Therefore the word ālambana, as used above for both Śrī Kṛṣṇa and those persons described as tad-anvayī, indicates that they are the support of hāsya-rasa because their amusing speech and activities stimulate laughter in others; not that they are the object of other’s laughter in the sense of ridicule. When that laughter is connected to Kṛṣṇa and is nourished by the devotee’s rati for Him, it becomes hāsya-rati.

The elderly and especially children are the āśrayālambana of hāsya-rasa. Superior persons may also sometimes be the āśraya.

Uddīpana

The statements, dress and behaviour of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and those who perform some activity connected to Him (tad-anvayī) are the stimulants for laughter.

Anubhāva

Anubhāvas include vibration of the nose, lips and cheeks.

Sāttvika-bhāva

Several sāttvika-bhāvas may be possible.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

Vyabhicāri-bhāvas include jubilation, laziness and concealment of emotions.

Sthāyibhāva

The sthāyibhāva or dominant emotion is hāsa-rati. The cheerfulness of the heart that is experienced upon witnessing unusual alterations of speech, dress, activities and so on is called hāsa, laughter. When laughter arises from speech, dress and activities that are related to Kṛṣṇa and receives nourishment from any of the primary emotions (mukhya-parārtha-rati) which then recede into the background, it is transformed into hāsa-rati. Hāsa-rati is of six kinds as described below.

  1. Smita – when the teeth are not visible and there is blossoming of the eyes and cheeks.
  2. Hasita – when the forepart of the teeth is slightly visible. Smita and hasita are observed in superior persons (jyeṣṭha). This term here refers to munis and sakhīs.
  3. Vihasita – when the teeth are visible and the sound of laughter is heard.
  4. Avahasita – when there is flaring of the nostrils and squinting of the eyes. Vihasita and avahasita are observed in intermediate persons (madhyama). This term here refers to the elderly and also to female messengers (dūtī).
  5. Apahasita – when the eyes well up with tears and the shoulders shake.
  6. Atihasita – when there is clapping of the hands and throwing up of the hands and feet. Apahasita and atihasita are observed in those who are inferior (kaniṣṭha). This term here refers to children. In particular situations, however, vihasita and the other remaining varieties of hāsa-rati are exhibited even by exalted personalities.

(B) Adbhuta-bhakti-rasa – Astonishment

When vismaya-rati is nourished by its corresponding elements of vibhāva and so on and becomes relishable in the heart of the devotee, it is known as adbhuta-bhakti-rasa.

Vibhāva

Viṣayālambana

Kṛṣṇa who performs extraordinary deeds is the viṣayālambana of adbhuta-rasa.

Āśrayālambana

Devotees of all five rasas can be the āśraya of adbhuta-rasa.

Uddīpana

Kṛṣṇa’s unique activities are stimulants for this rasa.

Anubhāva

Widening of the eyes and so on.

Sāttvika-bhāva

Becoming stunned, horripilation and so on.

Vyabhicāri-bhāvas

Vyabhicāri-bhāvas include excitement, jubilation, inertness and other emotions.

Sthāyibhāva

Vismaya-rati arising from perception of extraordinary deeds, forms and qualities is the sthāyibhāva or dominant emotion of adbhuta-bhakti-rasa. The expansion of the heart that takes place upon witnessing something extraordinary is called vismaya, astonishment.

When astonishment arises from seeing the uncommon pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and receives nourishment from one of the primary emotions (mukhya-parārtha-rati) which then recedes into the background, it is transformed into vismaya-rati. Kṛṣṇa’s extraordinary activities may be perceived in two ways: sākṣāt (directly perceived) and anumita (inferred). Sākṣāt is further divided into three categories: dṛṣṭa (seen), śruta (heard) and saṅkīrtita (recited).

(C) Vīra-bhakti-rasa – Heroism

When utsāha-rati combines with its corresponding elements of vibhāva, anubhāva and so on and becomes relishable in the devotee’s heart, it is called vīra-bhakti-rasa.

Vīra-bhakti-rasa is of four kinds:

  • yuddha-vīra (heroism in fighting),
  • dāna-vīra (heroism in giving charity),
  • dayā-vīra (heroism in compassion) and
  • dharma-vīra (heroism in religious activity).

These four types of heroes are the ālambana of vīra-bhakti-rasa. Utsāha-rati is found in these four types of devotees as enthusiasm for fighting, enthusiasm for giving charity and so on. Each of these will now be considered separately.

(i) Yuddha-vīra – Heroism in fighting

Vibhāva

Ālambana

A friend who is eager to fight for the pleasure of Kṛṣṇa is called yuddha-vīra. In this case either Kṛṣṇa may act as the contesting warrior or another friend may do so at Kṛṣṇa’s bidding while He looks on as a spectator.

Uddīpana

When a challenger is present and exhibits bragging, slapping of the thighs as a gesture of challenge, rivalry, heroism and wielding of weapons, these symptoms are uddīpanas that stimulate another’s fighting spirit.

Anubhāva

When the symptoms mentioned above are automatically exhibited without provocation by a challenger, they are anubhāvas. Other anubhāvas include displaying one’s valour out of pride in one’s virility, roaring like a lion, angry words, fighting postures, enthusiasm to fight although alone, never retreating from battle and displaying fearlessness before a frightened person.

Sāttvika-bhāva

Tears, trembling and so on.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

Vyabhicāri-bhāvas include pride, agitation, fortitude, shame, resolve, jubilation, concealment of emotion, indignation, ardent desire, envy and remembrance.

Sthāyibhāva

Yuddhotsāha-rati (enthusiasm for fighting) is the sthāyibhāva or dominant emotion of yuddha-vīra-bhakti-rasa. A very firm attachment and urgency to carry out one’s aspired-for activity of fighting, giving charity and so on, the fruit of which is praised by sādhus, is called utsāha, enthusiasm. In utsāha there is tremendous exertion or diligence, an absence of patience and no dependence upon time. When enthusiasm arises in relation to Kṛṣṇa and receives nourishment from mukhya-parārtha-rati which recedes into the background, it is transformed into utsāha-rati. A very firm desire to achieve victory in the matter of fighting is known as yuddhotsāha-rati. This is of four types:

  1. Svaśaktyā āhārya – one fights by his own power after being provoked by a challenger.
  2. Svaśaktyā sahaja – one fights by his own power spontaneously (without inducement).
  3. Sahāyenāhārya – one fights alongside a friend after being coaxed by that friend to accompany him in battle.
  4. Sahāyena sahaja – one is spontaneously eager to fight accompanied by a friend.
    In yuddha-vīra-bhakti-rasa only Kṛṣṇa’s friends can act as contesting warriors and never Kṛṣṇa’s enemies. Because they agitate the devotees, enemies can be the ālambana of raudra-rasa, anger [which is described ahead on pp. XXX].

(ii) Dāna-vīra – Heroism in giving charity

Dāna-vīra is of two types:

  • (a) bahuprada (one who gives great wealth) and
  • (b) upasthita-durāpārtha-tyāgī (one who refuses an offer of rare wealth). These will be considered separately.

(a) Bahuprada – Giver of great wealth

Vibhāva

Ālambana

One who is spontaneously willing to give everything including his very self for the pleasure of Kṛṣṇa is called bahuprada. He is the āśraya of dāna-vīra-rasa, whereas the person for whose benefit charity is given, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, is the viṣaya.

Uddīpana

Seeing a fit recipient for charity.

Anubhāva

Giving more than desired, conversing with a mild smile, steadiness, expertise, fortitude and so on are the anubhāvas.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

The vyabhicāri-bhāvas include deliberation, ardent desire and jubilation.

Sthāyibhāva

Dānotsāha-rati is the sthāyibhāva of this rasa. Utsāha has already been defined under yuddha-vīra. A steady and deep enthusiasm to give charity is known as dānotsāha. When enthusiasm to give charity arises in relation to Kṛṣṇa and is nourished by mukhya-parārtha-rati, it is transformed into dānotsāha-rati.

Bahuprada is of two types:

  1. Ābhyudayika (bestowing prosperity) – One who is willing to offer everything to brāhmaṇas and others in order to invoke auspiciousness for Śrī Kṛṣṇa is called ābhyudayika. An example of this is Nanda Mahārāja, who gave fabulous wealth to the brāhmaṇas at Kṛṣṇa’s birth ceremony.
  2. Tat-sampradānaka (handing over completely) – One who is in full knowledge of Kṛṣṇa’s glories and who offers all his possessions and even his very self to Him is known as tat-sampradānaka.

This type of charity is further divided into two types: prīti-dāna (to give to Kṛṣṇa as a relative) and pūjā-dāna (to give alms to the Lord in the form of a brāhmaṇa). Prīti-dāna was exhibited by Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira at the rājasūya-yajña. Pūjā-dāna was exhibited by Bali Mahārāja, who gave charity to Vāmanadeva in the form of a brāhmaṇa.

(b) Upasthita-durāpārtha-tyāgī – A renouncer of rare wealth

Vibhāva

Ālambana

One who refuses even the five types of liberation offered by the Lord is called upasthita-durāpārtha-tyāgī. This is a reversal of the roles exhibited by the first type of dāna-vīra. In other words here the Lord is the giver of charity and the devotee is the would-be recipient.

Uddīpana

Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s mercy, conversation and laughter are uddīpanas.

Anubhāva

Steadiness in describing the superiority of the Lord and other symptoms are the anubhāvas.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

Fortitude is the vyabhicāri-bhāva most prominently seen in this rasa.

Sthāyibhāva

Tyāgotsāha-rati is the sthāyibhāva of this rasa. A very strong desire to renounce even the five types of liberation is known as tyāgotsāha-rati.

(iii) Dayā-vīra – Heroism in compassion

Vibhāva

Ālambana

One whose heart is melting with compassion and who is even prepared to cut his body to pieces and offer himself to a disguised form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa is called dayā-vīra.

Uddīpana

Seeing the distress of the person towards whom compassion is displayed is the stimulus for this rasa.

Anubhāva

Being prepared to exchange one’s life for the protection of a distressed person, words of consolation, and steadiness.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

Vyabhicāri-bhāvas include zeal, resolve and jubilation.

Sthāyibhāva

Dayotsāha-rati is the sthāyibhāva of this rasa. Enthusiasm that is possessed of tremendous compassion is known as dayotsāha. When this enthusiasm to give charity is related to Kṛṣṇa and nourished by mukhya-parārtha-rati, it is transformed into dayotsāha-rati. King Mayūradhvaja is given as an example of dayā-vīra. The king offered his body in sacrifice to Kṛṣṇa who came to him disguised as a brāhmaṇa. In this case the king did not actually know that the brāhmaṇa was Kṛṣṇa. Had he known that the brāhmaṇa was Kṛṣṇa, then the quality of compassion would have receded and enthusiasm to give charity (dāna-vīra) would have been the dominant sentiment. This is the distinction between dāna-vīra and dayā-vīra.

(iv) Dharma-vīra – Heroism in religious activity

Vibhāva

Ālambana

A sober and calm person who is always completely fixed in the performance of religious activities for the pleasure of Śrī Kṛṣṇa is called dharma-vīra.

Uddīpana

Hearing the religious scriptures and so on.

Anubhāva

Moral conduct, theism, tolerance, control of the senses and other symptoms are anubhāvas.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

Vyabhicāri-bhāvas include resolve, remembrance and other symptoms.

Sthāyibhāva

Dharmotsāha-rati is the sthāyibhāva of this rasa. Total absorption in religious activity is known as dharmotsāha. When enthusiasm for religious activity arises in connection with Śrī Kṛṣṇa and is nourished by mukhya-parārtha-rati, it is transformed into dharmotsāha-rati. Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, who performed religious sacrifices in his palace daily for the pleasure of Kṛṣṇa, is stated as an example of dharma-vīra.

(D) Karuṇa-bhakti-rasa – Compassion

When śoka-rati combines with its corresponding components of vibhāva, anubhāva and so on and becomes relishable in the devotee’s heart, it is known as karuṇa-bhakti-rasa.

Vibhāva

Viṣayālambana

In karuṇa-rasa the viṣayālambana is of three types:

  1. Śrī Kṛṣṇa – Being the embodiment of uninterrupted supreme bliss, there is no possibility of any harm coming to Him. But when a devotee out of intense love thinks that some calamity may befall Him, He becomes the object of karuṇa-rasa for that devotee.
  2. Priya – The dear associates of Śrī Kṛṣṇa may be the object of karuṇa-rasa when they are placed in a dangerous situation. The gopīs who were threatened by Śaṅkacūḍa are given as an example.
  3. Sva-priya – The relatives of a devotee who are deprived of the happiness of bhakti due to an absence of Vaiṣṇavism or other reasons may also be the object of karuṇa-rasa. The munis who attained sāyujya-mukti and were thus deprived of the happiness of bhakti became the object of karuṇa-rasa for Nārada Muni (a fellow muni). Mādrī and Pāṇḍu became the object of karuṇa-rasa for their son Sahadeva when he beheld the splendour of Govinda’s lotus feet, for they were deprived of such an opportunity.

Āśrayālambana

There are three corresponding types of devotees who experience the sentiment of compassion towards the three types of persons described above, and such devotees are the āśrayālambana of this rasa. This sentiment generally does not arise in śānta-bhaktas or in adhikṛta- and śaraṇāgata-dāsya-bhaktas.

Uddīpana

Kṛṣṇa’s activities, qualities, form and so on are stimulants for this rasa.

Anubhāva

Drying of the mouth, lamentation, sighing, crying out, falling on the ground, striking the ground with one’s fists, beating one’s chest and so on are the anubhāvas.

Sāttvika-bhāva

All eight sāttvika-bhāvas are observed in this rasa.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

The vyabhicāri-bhāvas include inertness, self-disparagement, debility, wretchedness, anxiety, despondency, ardent desire, restlessness, madness, death, laziness, confusion, disease and fainting.

Sthāyibhāva

Śoka-rati is the sthāyibhāva of this rasa. The sorrow and grief that one experiences in the heart due to separation from one’s beloved or upon perceiving that some calamity has befallen one’s beloved is called śoka. When that sorrow arises in relation to Śrī Kṛṣṇa and is nourished by mukhya-parārtha-rati, it is transformed into śoka-rati.

If one is aware of Kṛṣṇa’s opulence and power, then there is no possibility of fearing for His safety and hence no possibility of experiencing śoka-rati. But in the devotee who experiences śoka-rati towards Kṛṣṇa, the absence of knowledge of His majesty is not due to ignorance but due to the overwhelming sentiment of love.

Laughter and other emotions may sometimes arise even in the absence of rati, but śoka is never possible without rati. This is what distinguishes śoka-rati from the other types of gauṇa-rati.

(E) Raudra-bhakti-rasa – Anger

When krodha-rati combines with its corresponding components of vibhāva, anubhāva and so on and attains prominence in the devotee’s heart, it is called raudra-bhakti-rasa.

Vibhāva

Viṣayālambana

The viṣayālambana of raudra-rasa is of three types: Śrī Kṛṣṇa, hita (a well-wisher) and ahita (one who is hostile).

Hita, or well-wishers who become the object of anger, are of three types:

  1. Anavahita (inattentive) – Those who are responsible for protecting Kṛṣṇa but who become inattentive to Kṛṣṇa’s safety due to carrying out other activities for Kṛṣṇa, are called anavahita. Śrī Yaśodā became the object of Rohiṇī’s anger for tying Kṛṣṇa to the grinding mortar, when the latter saw Him wandering between the fallen trees.
  2. Sāhasī (rash) – Those who incite Kṛṣṇa to go to a dangerous place are called sāhasī. Kṛṣṇa’s friends became the object of Śrī Yaśodā’s anger for leading Kṛṣṇa to the Tālavana forest.
  3. Īrṣyu (jealous) – Gopīs whose only treasure is indignant anger and whose minds are always besieged by jealousy are known as īrṣyu. Śrī Rādhā once displayed such persistent indignant anger towards Śrī Kṛṣṇa that in spite of all attempts both by Him and the sakhīs, Her māna could not be broken. Finally Kṛṣṇa left in despair. Because of Kṛṣṇa’s departure, Śrī Rādhā became distressed and Her māna desisted. She begged Śrī Lalitā to go and bring Kṛṣṇa back. At that time She became the object of Lalitā’s anger for being so unrelenting in Her māna.

Ahita, or hostile persons who become the object of anger, are of two kinds:

  1. Svasyāhita (hostile to oneself) – Someone who impedes one’s relationship with Kṛṣṇa is called svasyāhita. Akrūra became the object of the gopīs’ anger because he took Kṛṣṇa away from Vṛndāvana.
  2. Harer ahita (hostile to Kṛṣṇa) – The enemies of Kṛṣṇa are known as harer ahita.

Āśrayālambana

The sakhīs and jaratī (elderly gopīs like Jaṭilā) are the āśrayālambana when Kṛṣṇa is the object of anger. All kinds of devotees may be the āśraya when a well-wisher or hostile person is the object.

Uddīpana

Sarcastic laughter, evasive speech, leering, disrespect and so on displayed both by well-wishers and persons hostile to Śrī Kṛṣṇa are the stimulants of this rasa.

Anubhāva

Pounding one’s hands, grinding one’s teeth, reddening of the eyes, biting the lips, knitting the eyebrows, quivering of the arms, rebuking, remaining silent, lowering of the head, breathing heavily, looking askance, admonishing, moving the head, reddishness at the corners of the eyes and trembling of the lips are all anubhāvas.

Sāttvika-bhāva

All eight sāttvika-bhāvas are present in raudra-rasa.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

The vyabhicāri-bhāvas include agitation, inertness, pride, self- disparagement, delusion, rashness, jealousy, fierceness, indignation, exhaustion and so on.

Sthāyibhāva

Krodha-rati is the sthāyibhāva of this rasa. The inflammation of the heart that takes place when confronted with hostility is called krodha, anger. When anger arises in relation to Śrī Kṛṣṇa and is nourished by mukhya-parārtha-rati, it is transformed into krodha-rati.

Anger is of three types:

  1. Kopa (fury) – Anger exhibited towards enemies is called kopa.
  2. Manyu (indignation) – Anger exhibited towards relatives is called manyu. This manyu is also of three types: pūjya (anger towards respectable and worshipful relatives), sama (anger towards relatives of equal status) and nyūna (anger towards junior relatives). Śrī Rādhā expressed slight indignation towards Paurṇamāsī when the latter instructed Her on the importance of chastity to Her husband. This is an instance of pūjya manyu. Once Mukharā (Rādhikā’s maternal grandmother) became angry at Jaṭilā for accusing Kṛṣṇa of destroying the reputation of her daughter-in-law. This is an example of sama manyu. Once Jaṭilā became angry at Śrī Rādhā when she saw Her wearing Kṛṣṇa’s necklace around Her neck. This is an example of nyūna manyu.
  3. Roṣa (pique) – The anger that a woman exhibits towards her lover is called roṣa. In mādhurya-rasa, roṣa is counted as a vyabhicāri-bhāva or transitory emotion and not as a dominant emotion. The anger of a woman towards her lover (roṣa) does not attain to the status of sthāyibhāva as is the case with the anger of the sakhīs and elderly gopīs towards enemies (kopa) or relatives (manyu). As far as the vyabhicāri-bhāvas mentioned on the previous page are concerned, fierceness is exhibited towards enemies, indignation towards relatives and jealousy towards the beloved.

The natural inborn anger that enemies such as Śiśupāla have towards Kṛṣṇa is not born of kṛṣṇa-rati and therefore it can never be counted as bhakti-rasa.

(F) Bhayānaka-bhakti-rasa – Fear

When bhaya-rati combines with vibhāva, anubhāva and so on and attains prominence in the devotee’s heart, it is called bhayānaka-bhakti-rasa.

Vibhāva

Viṣayālambana

The viṣayālambana of this rasa is of two types: Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the wicked (dāruṇa).

Āśrayālambana

The āśrayālambana is also of two types:

  1. Anukampya (fit to be favoured) – When Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the object of fear, a devotee who commits some offence but who is a fit object of the Lord’s favour is the āśrayālambana. Examples of this are Jāmbavān, who fought with Kṛṣṇa not realising His identity, and Kāliyanāga after fighting with Kṛṣṇa.
  2. Bandhu (a relative or friend) – A relative or friend of Kṛṣṇa who out of affection is always apprehensive that some harm may come to Him is the āśrayālambana when a wicked person is the viṣayālambana. Fear arises in such a devotee by seeing, hearing of, or remembering such a wicked person. Examples are as follows:
    • Darśana (seeing) – Śrī Yaśodā became fearful for Kṛṣṇa upon seeing the Keśī demon.
    • Śravaṇa (hearing) – She became fearful upon hearing of Keśī’s entrance into Gokula.
    • Smaraṇa (remembrance) – A woman from a distant place one day inquired from Yaśodā about Pūtanā. The mere remembrance of Pūtanā made Yaśodā fearful for Kṛṣṇa.

Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī comments that acceptance of the wicked as āśraya of this rasa instead of a devotee is in accordance with the opinion of previous authorities on nāṭya-śāstra like Bhārata Muni. Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartī’s own opinion, which is in accordance with Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, is that hāsya and the other secondary rasas are for practical purposes vyabhicāri-bhāvas. The purport is that Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the viṣaya and the devotee is the āśraya of the five primary forms of rati. This is the general rule accepted everywhere.

Hāsa and the other secondary emotions are accepted as sthāyibhāvas of the seven secondary rasas in accordance with the ordinary rasa-śāstras only because they take on the characteristics of rati being nourished by mukhya-parārtha-rati. According to this opinion, dāruṇa or the wicked are accepted as ālambana of bhayānaka-rasa. But in the author’s own opinion ālambana refers to that in which rati is stimulated (the devotee) and not by which rati is stimulated (the wicked in the case of fear). According to this understanding the ālambana of bhayānaka-rasa may be of two types. When there are two different devotees who are both fit for the Lord’s mercy (anukampya), one may become angry with the other due to some situation concerning Śrī Kṛṣṇa. In this case the devotee who is angry will be the viṣaya of fear, the other devotee will be the āśraya of fear, and Kṛṣṇa will be the cause. This is a common scenario. The second circumstance is more specialised. When a friend or relative is anxious for Kṛṣṇa’s safety due to the threat of a wicked person, the enemy is the cause of fear, the relative is the repository of fear (āśraya) and Kṛṣṇa is the object (viṣaya) for whom fear is experienced.

Uddīpana

Knitting the eyebrows on the part of the object of fear and other symptoms are stimulants for this rasa.

Anubhāva

Drying of the mouth, panting, looking behind oneself, hiding oneself, moving to and fro, looking for shelter and screaming are anubhāvas.

Sāttvika-bhāva

All the sāttvika-bhāvas except for tears are manifest in this rasa.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

The vyabhicāri-bhāvas include fear, death, restlessness, agitation, wretchedness, despondency, fainting, confusion and apprehension.

Sthāyibhāva

Bhaya-rati is the sthāyibhāva of this rasa. The extreme agitation and restlessness of the heart that is experienced upon committing some offence or upon seeing a dreadful object is called bhaya, fear. When this fear arises in relation to Śrī Kṛṣṇa and is nourished by mukhya-parārtha-rati, it is transformed into bhaya-rati. Fear arises either due to an offence or upon seeing a dreadful person. A person may be dreadful for three reasons:

  1. Ākṛti – due to having a dreadful form like Pūtanā and others.
  2. Prakṛti – due to having a dreadful nature like Śiśupāla and others.
  3. Prabhāva – due to awesome power like that of Indra and Śaṅkara.

Fear arises in persons possessed of great love for the object of fear, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and mostly in women and children. Demons like Kaṁsa who are always afraid of the Lord cannot be the āśraya of fear in bhayānaka-rasa because they are devoid of rati for Kṛṣṇa.

(G) Bībhatsa-bhakti-rasa – Disgust

When jugupsā-rati is nourished by vibhāva, anubhāva and so on, it is transformed into bībhatsa-bhakti-rasa.

Vibhāva

Ālambana

Śānta-bhaktas, āśrita-dāsya-bhaktas and others of a similar disposition are the āśrayālambana of this rasa. The material body and other such objects are the viṣaya or object of disgust.

Anubhāva

Spitting, contorting the face, covering the nose and running away are anubhāvas.

Sāttvika-bhāva

Trembling, horripilation, perspiration and so on are all sāttvika-bhāvas.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

The vyabhicāri-bhāvas include debility, exhaustion, madness, delusion, self-disparagement, wretchedness, despondency, restlessness and inertness.

Sthāyibhāva

Jugupsā-rati is the sthāyibhāva of this rasa. The contraction or shutting of the heart that takes place upon experiencing detestable things is called jugupsā, disgust. When this feeling of disgust is nourished by mukhya-parārtha-rati, it is transformed into jugupsā-rati. Jugupsā-rati is of two kinds:

  1. Vivekajā (arising from discrimination) – In devotees who have developed rati towards Kṛṣṇa, feelings of disgust towards the material body may arise from the awakening of discrimination. This is called vivekajā jugupsā-rati.
  2. Prāyikī (general) – Devotees of all five rasas generally experience disgust in the presence of impure or foul-smelling things. This is called prāyikī jugupsā-rati.
    In Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (4.7.13–14) Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī concludes the discussion of gauṇa-rasa by saying that hāsya and the other secondary emotions have been accepted as rasa in accordance with the opinion of past authorities like Bhārata Muni. This point should be understood by insightful persons. The five primary rasas are factually accepted as hari-bhakti-rasa. Hāsya and the other secondary emotions are for practical purposes vyabhicāri-bhāvas of these five rasas.

[CC-by-ND GVP]

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