Verse 19: Dāsya-rasa

atha dāsye rase īśvaraḥ prabhuḥ sarvajñaḥ bhakta-vatsalaḥ ityādi guṇavān śrī-kṛṣṇo viṣayālambanaḥ. āśrayālambanāś catur-vidhāḥ adhikṛta-bhaktāḥ āśritāḥ pārṣadāḥ anugāś ceti. tatra brahmā, śaṅkara ityādayo ’dhikṛta-bhaktāḥ. tatra āśritās
trividhāḥ śaraṇyāḥ jñānicarāḥ sevā-niṣṭhāḥ kāliya-jarāsandha-magadha-rāja-baddha-rājādayaḥ śaraṇyāḥ. prathamato jñānino ’pi mumukṣāṁ parityajya ye dāsye pravṛttās te sanakādayo jñāni-carāḥ. ye prathamata eva bhajane ratāste candradhvaja-harihaya-bahulāśvādayaḥ sevā-niṣṭhāḥ. uddhava-dāruka-śrutadevādayaḥ pārṣadāḥ. sucandra-maṇḍanādyāḥ pureḥ, raktaka-patraka madhu-kaṇṭhādayo vraje anugāḥ. eṣāṁ saparivāra eva kṛṣṇe ye yathocit bhakti-mantas te dhurya-bhaktāḥ. ye kṛṣṇa-preyasī-varge ādara-yuktās te dhīra-bhaktāḥ. ye tu tat-kṛpāṁ prāpya garveṇa kam api na gaṇayanti te vīra-bhaktāḥ. eteṣu gauravānvita-sambhrama-prīti-yuktās tu pradyumna-śāmbādayaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇasya pālyāḥ. te sarve kecin nitya-siddhāḥ kecit sādhana-siddhāḥ kecit sādhakāḥ. śrī-kṛṣṇānugraha-caraṇa-dhūlī-mahā-prasādādaya uddīpana-vibhāvāḥ. śrī-kṛṣṇasyājñā-karaṇādayo ’nubhāvāḥ. premā rāgaḥ snehaś cātra rase bhavati. adhikṛta-bhakte āśrita-bhakte ca prema-paryanto bhavati sthāyī. pārṣada-bhakte sneha paryantaḥ. parīkṣita dāruke uddhave rāgaḥ prakaṭa eva. vrajānuge raktakādau sarva eva. pradyumnādāv api sarva eva. yāvat paryantaṁ śrī-kṛṣṇa-darśanaṁ prathamato bhavati tāvat-kālam ayogaḥ. darśanā-nantaraṁ yadi vicchedas tadā viyogaḥ. tatra daśa daśāḥ. aṅgeṣu tāpaḥ kṛśatā jāgaryā ālambana-śūnyatā adhṛti jaḍatā vyādhir unmādo mūrcchitaṁ mṛtiś ca. iti dāsya-rasaḥ.

Śrī Bindu-vikāśinī-vṛtti

In Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.3) dāsya-rasa (also known as prīta-rasa) is described as follows:

ātmocitair vibhāvādyaiḥ
prītir āsvādanīyatām
nītā cetasi bhaktānāṁ
prīta-bhakti-raso mataḥ

 

When dāsya-rati becomes tasteful within the hearts of devotees by combination with the appropriate elements of vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika-bhāva and vyabhicāri-bhāva, it is called prīta-bhakti-rasa or dāsya-bhakti-rasa.

In dāsya-rasa two kinds of devotees are fit recipients of Kṛṣṇa’s mercy: those who possess the attitude of servants and those who possess the attitude of being maintained or reared by Kṛṣṇa. Consequently dāsya-rasa is divided into two: (A) sambhrama-prīta (the reverence and submission that a servant feels towards the master) and (B) gaurava-prīta (the respect and high estimation that a son feels for his father). Those who consider themselves as servants of Kṛṣṇa possess sambhrama-prīta-rati and those who consider themselves as reared by Kṛṣṇa possess gaurava-prīta-rati. First sambhrama-prīta-rasa will be discussed.

(A) Sambhrama-prīta-rasa

Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.5) describes sambhrama-prīta-rasa as follows:

dāsābhimānināṁ kṛṣṇe
syāt
prītiḥ sambhramottarā
pūrvavat puṣyamāṇo ’yaṁ
sambhrama-prīta ucyate

 

When sambhrama-prīti towards Śrī Kṛṣṇa is nourished in the hearts of the dāsya-bhaktas (those devotees who cherish the conception of being Kṛṣṇa’s servants) by combination with vibhāva and the other elements, it is called sambhrama-prīta-rasa.

Vibhāva

Viṣayālambana of sambhrama-prīta-rasa

In sambhrama-prīta-rasa the two-handed form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the viṣayālambana for the residents of Gokula. In other places, such as Dvārakā and Mathurā, the viṣayālambana is Śrī Kṛṣṇa sometimes in a two-handed form and sometimes in a four-handed form.

The qualities that Śrī Kṛṣṇa displays as the viṣayālambana of sambhrama-prīta-rasa are described as follows: millions of universes are situated in the pores of His body (koṭi-brahmāṇḍa-vigraha); He is an ocean of mercy (kṛpāmbudhi); He possesses inconceivable potency (avicintya-mahāśakti); He is served by all mystic perfections (sarva-siddhi-niṣevita); He is the source of all incarnations (avatārāvalī-bīja); He always attracts the ātmārāmas (ātmārāma-gaṇākarṣī); He is independent and His order cannot be transgressed (īśvara); He is the master (prabhu), the supreme object of worship (paramārādhya) and all-knowing (sarvajña); He is firmly fixed in vow (sudṛḍha-vrata), opulent (samṛddhimān), forgiving (kṣamāśīla) and the protector of surrendered souls (śaraṇāgata-pālaka); His actions are very pleasing (dakṣiṇa); His words never prove false (satya-vacana); He can perform difficult tasks with ease (dakṣa); He acts for the welfare of everyone (sarva-śubhaṅkara); He is famous for putting His enemies into distress (pratāpī); He is religious (dhārmika) and acts in accordance with śāstra (śāstra-cakṣuḥ); He is the friend of His devotees (bhakta-suhṛt) and magnanimous (vadānya); His body is radiant and He is extremely powerful and influential (tejasvī); and He is grateful (kṛtajña), famous (kīrtimān), the most excellent (varīyān), powerful (balavān) and controlled by the love of His devotees (prema-vaśya).

Āśrayālambana of sambhrama-prīta-rasa

Four kinds of devotees are the āśrayālambana of sambhrama-prīta-rasa: (1) adhikṛta (appointed or authorised servants), (2) āśrita (those who have taken refuge at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa), (3) pāriṣada (the retinue or attendants of the Lord) and (4) anugas (followers of the Lord).

(1) Adhikṛta-bhaktas
Servants who are appointed to their respective positions by Śrī Kṛṣṇa such as Brahmā, Śaṅkara, Indra and other demigods are known as adhikṛta-bhaktas.

(2) Āśrita-bhaktas
The āśrita-bhaktas are of three kinds: śaraṇya (those who have taken refuge of the Lord), jñānicara (those who were formerly attached to the path of jñāna) and sevā-niṣṭha (those who are fixed in the service of the Lord). The attitudes of these three types of devotees are expressed in the following verse from Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.22):

kecid bhītāḥ śaraṇam abhitaḥ saṁśrayante bhavantaṁ
vijñātārthās tvad-anubhavataḥ prāsya kecin mumukṣām
śrāvaṁ śrāvaṁ tava nava-navāṁ mādhurīṁ sādhu-vṛndād
vṛndāraṇyotsava! kila vayaṁ deva! sevemahi tvām

 

[A sādhaka-bhakta possessing the innate characteristic of dāsya-rati spoke as follows:] O festival of Vṛndāvana (one who gives pleasure to Vṛndāvana)! O Lord! Some persons, being very fearful, have taken complete shelter of You, knowing You to be their protector. Other persons, having realised You, have become acquainted with the supreme truth. Thus they have given up their desire for mokṣa and taken refuge of You, whereas we are devotedly engaged in Your service, having heard again and again from the mouths of saintly devotees the ever-fresh and sweet narrations about You.

The first part of this verse describes the śaraṇya-bhaktas. They take shelter of the Lord as their protector due to being subjected to a fearful situation. Examples of such devotees include Kāliya-nāga and the kings imprisoned by the King of Magadha, Jarāsandha. The second part of this verse describes the jñānicara-bhaktas. They are jñānīs who take shelter of the Lord after abandoning their desire for mokṣa. The four Kumāras – Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanātana and Sanat Kumāra – are examples of jñānicara-bhaktas. Although previously jñānīs, they renounced their desire for mokṣa by the mercy and association of Brahmā, the original father of all, and became engaged in dāsya-rasa. The third part of the above śloka describes the sevā-niṣṭha-bhaktas. They are devotees who are established in service from the very beginning. These include the kings Candradhvaja, Harihaya and Bahulāśva, as well as Ikṣvāku and Puṇḍarīka.

(3) Pāriṣada-bhaktas
The attendants of the Lord in Dvārakā include the kṣatriyas such as Uddhava, Dāruka, Sātyaki and Śatrujit as well as the brāhmaṇa Śrutadeva. Although serving as ministers, charioteers and so on, they also engage in various services in accordance with time and their respective abilities. Among the Kauravas, Bhīṣma, Parīkṣit, Vidura and others are counted as pāriṣada-bhaktas. Among the cowherd men of Vraja, Upananda, Bhadra and others are pāriṣada-bhaktas.

(4) Anuga-bhaktas
Those whose hearts are always deeply attached to rendering personal services to Śrī Kṛṣṇa are called anuga-bhaktas (followers of the Lord). Anuga-bhaktas are of two kinds: purastha (those residing in Dvārakā) and vrajastha (those residing in Vraja). The anugas in Dvārakā include Sucandra, Maṇḍana, Stanva, Sutanva and others. In Vraja the anuga-bhaktas are Raktaka, Patraka, Patrī, Madhukaṇṭha, Madhuvrata, Rasāla, Suvilāsa, Premakanda, Makaranda, Ānanda, Candrahāsa, Payoda, Vakula, Rasada, Śārada and others.

The pāriṣada- and anuga-bhaktas are further divided into three classifications: (i) dhurya (those who are eminently fit or distinguished), (ii) dhīra (composed, calm or clever) and (iii) vīra (heroic).

(i) Dhurya
Those devotees who display appropriate love and devotion towards both Kṛṣṇa and His family members are known as dhurya-bhaktas. In Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.49) they have been further described as follows:

kṛṣṇe ’sya preyasī-varge
dāsādau ca yathāyatham
yaḥ prītiṁ tanute bhaktaḥ
sa dhurya iti kīrttate

 

Those devotees who extend appropriate love and affection towards Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the lovers of Śrī Kṛṣṇa (kṛṣṇa-preyasīs) and the servants of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, are called dhurya-bhaktas.

An example of a dhurya-bhakta is given as follows in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.50):

devaḥ sevyatayā yathā sphurati me devyas tathāsya priyāḥ
sarvaḥ prāṇa-samānatāṁ pracinute tad bhakti-bhājāṁ gaṇaḥ
smṛtvā sāhasikaṁ bibhemi tad ahaṁ bhaktābhimānonnataṁ
prītiṁ tat praṇate khare ’py avidadhad yaḥ svāsthyam ālambate

 

Just as Śrī Kṛṣṇadeva is fit to be served by us, so are His beloveds. Similarly the devotees of Kṛṣṇa are as dear to us as life. But I fear even to remember those arrogant persons who, due to the pride of considering themselves devotees, spend their time happily without offering love to the less intelligent who are, nonetheless, fully surrendered to Kṛṣṇa.

(ii) Dhīra
Those who maintain greater faith in the beloved damsels (preyasīs) of Śrī Kṛṣṇa are known as dhīra-bhaktas. They have been described in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.51) as follows:

āśritya preyasīm asya
nāti-sevāparo ’pi yaḥ
tasya prasāda-pātraṁ syān
mukhyaṁ dhīraḥ sa ucyate

 

Those devotees who have taken shelter of one of the preyasīs of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and are a principal object of Kṛṣṇa’s affection even though they are not overly absorbed in service, are known as dhīra-bhaktas.

An example of a dhīra-bhakta is given in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.52) as follows:

kam api pṛthag anuccair nācarāmi prayatnaṁ
yadukula-kamalārka tvat-prasāda-śriye ’pi
samajani nanu devyāḥ pārijātārcitāyāḥ
parijana-nikhilāntaḥ pātinī me yadākhyā

 

[The son of a nurse of Satyabhāmā was very dear to her. At the time of Satyabhāmā’s marriage, her father Satrājit sent him along with her. He used to always live near Satyabhāmā in the inner chambers of the palace at Dvārakā. Although he was not actually the brother-in-law of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, he used to behave with Him in that way, and by his humorous demeanour he gave pleasure to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. One day he spoke as follows to Śrī Kṛṣṇa:] O Kṛṣṇa, You are the sun that causes the lotus flower of the Yadu dynasty to bloom. I have not made even the slightest endeavour to obtain the treasure of Your mercy. Nonetheless I am renowned as one of the attendants of Satyabhāmā whom You worshipped by the Pārijāta tree.

(iii) Vīra
Those who, having attained Kṛṣṇa’s mercy, are somewhat proud and therefore do not depend upon any others are called vīra-bhaktas. An example of a vīra-bhakta is given as follows in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.54):

pralamba-ripur īśvaro bhavatu kā kṛtis tena me
kumāra makaradhvajād api na kiñcid āste phalam
kim anyad aham uddhataḥ prabhu-kṛpā-kaṭākṣa-śriyā
priyā-pariṣad-agrimāṁ na gaṇayāmi bhāmām api

 

No doubt, Śrī Baladeva, the enemy of Pralambha, is the Supreme īśvara – but of what use is that to me? I have nothing to gain even from Pradyumna who bears the flag of makara (a large sea creature that is considered to be the epitome of sensual desire). Then what to speak of others? Having obtained the wealth of the merciful side-long glance of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, I have become so haughty that I take no consideration even of Satyabhāmā, the foremost among Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s lovers.

Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī explains that in this instance, although the vīra-bhakta internally has love for Balarāma, Pradyumna and Satyabhāmā, there is an outward suggestion of pride for the sake of amusement arising out of affection. This is not real pride; otherwise it would not be rasa but virasatā, that which is opposed to rasa. He further explains that this verse was spoken by a vīra-bhakta to an intimate attendant of Satyabhāmā in a secluded place. If it had been spoken in public, it would have been a source of embarrassment to Śrī Kṛṣṇa because of the satirical allusion to Satyabhāmā, even more so than the overstepping of Baladeva.

All the above-mentioned devotees are of three types: nitya-siddha, sādhana-siddha and sādhaka.

Uddīpana

Asādhāraṇa-uddīpana

Attainment of Kṛṣṇa’s favour, the dust from His lotus feet, acceptance of His mahā-prasāda and the association of other devotees situated in dāsya-rasa are asādhāraṇa-uddīpanas or stimulants unique to sambhrama-prīta-rasa.

Sādhāraṇa-uddīpana

The sound of Kṛṣṇa’s flute and buffalo horn, His smiling glance, hearing of His qualities, a lotus flower, His footprints, a fresh rain cloud, the fragrance of His limbs and so on, are sādhāraṇa-uddīpanas or stimulants that dāsya-bhaktas share in common with devotees of all the other rasas.

Anubhāva

Asādhāraṇa-anubhāva

To be fully engaged in services to Śrī Kṛṣṇa that are suited to one’s ability, to be devoid of all trace of jealousy in spite of seeing each other’s excellence in the matter of personal service to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, to keep friendships with the servants of the Lord and to have firm faith in the mood of servitude only, are the asādhāraṇa or specific anubhāvas of sambhrama-prīta-rasa.

Sādhāraṇa-anubhāva

The thirteen anubhāvas previously mentioned such as dancing and singing, showing respect towards Kṛṣṇa’s friends, detachment and so on, are the sādhāraṇa-anubhāvas or symptoms shared in common with devotees of other rasas.

Sāttvika-bhāva

All eight sāttvika-bhāvas such as tears and becoming stunned are present in this rasa.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

There are twenty-four vyabhicāri-bhāvas in sambhrama-prīta-rasa: jubilation, pride, fortitude, self-disparagement, depression, wretchedness, anxiety, remembrance, apprehension, resolve, ardent desire, fickleness, deliberation, agitation, bashfulness, inertness, bewilderment, madness, concealment of emotions, awakening, dreaming, fatigue, disease and death.

The nine remaining vyabhicāri-bhāvas – intoxication, exhaustion, fear, hysteric convulsions, laziness, fury, intolerance, envy and sleepiness – do not give much nourishment to sambhrama-prīta-rasa. At the time of meeting with Śrī Kṛṣṇa, jubilation, pride and fortitude are manifest. In separation from Him, fatigue, disease and death are manifest. The eighteen remaining vyabhicāri-bhāvas are manifest both in meeting and in separation.

Sthāyibhāva

In Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.76) the sthāyibhāva of sambhrama-prīta-rasa is described as follows:

sambhramaḥ prabhutā-jñānāt
kampaś cetasi sādaraḥ
anenaikyaṁ gatā prītiḥ
sambhrama-prītir ucyate
eṣā rase ’tra kathitā
sthāyi-bhāvatayā budhaiḥ

 

A respectful attitude towards Śrī Kṛṣṇa, evoked by the conception of His being one’s worshipful master combined with unsteadiness of the heart to serve Śrī Kṛṣṇa, is called sambhrama. When prīti towards Śrī Kṛṣṇa attains complete identity with this sense of sambhrama, it is called sambhrama-prīti. According to learned scholars this sambhrama-prīti is the sthāyibhāva of sambhrama-prīta-rasa.

When sambhrama-prīti is augmented it attains successively to the stages of prema, sneha and rāga.

Prema

In Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.81) prema is defined as follows:

hrāsa-śaṅkā-cyutā baddha-
mūlā premeyam ucyate
asyānubhāvāḥ kathitās
tatra vyasanitādayaḥ

 

When sambhrama-prīti is very firmly rooted, there is no fear of its being diminished. This state is called prema. Distress, calamity and other symptoms which are exhibited in this state are anubhāvas of prema.

Sneha

In Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.84) sneha is defined as follows:

sāndraś citta-dravaṁ kurvan
premā sneha itīryyate
kṣaṇikasyāpi neha syād
viśleṣasya sahiṣṇutā

 

When prema is intensified and melts the heart it is called sneha. In sneha one cannot tolerate separation even for a moment.

Rāga

In Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.87) rāga is defined as follows:

snehaḥ sa rāgo yena syāt
sukhaṁ duḥkham api sphuṭam
tat sambandha-lave ’py atra
prītiḥ prāṇa-vyayair api

 

That sneha by which even distress appears like happiness due to slight contact with Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and by which a devotee is prepared to give up his life to please Śrī Kṛṣṇa, is called rāga.

In his commentary to this verse Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī explains the meaning of the words tat sambandha-lave ’pi – by even a slight contact with Śrī Kṛṣṇa. This means either direct meeting with Śrī Kṛṣṇa, an appearance identical to Him or the attainment of His mercy. By any of these, even unbearable distress appears like happiness. Furthermore he says that in the absence of such contact with Śrī Kṛṣṇa, even happiness appears like great distress.
Prema, sneha and rāga manifest in different devotees.

Previously it was said that the servants of Śrī Kṛṣṇa are of four kinds: adhikṛta, āśrita, pāriṣada and anuga. In the adhikṛta- and āśrita-bhaktas, the sthāyibhāva manifests up to the stage of prema. In the pāriṣada-bhaktas the sthāyibhāva may attain to the stage of sneha. In Parīkṣit, Dāruka and Uddhava it manifests up to the stage of rāga. In the vrajānugas, of which Raktaka is the chief, and in Pradyumna also, prema, sneha and rāga are observed. (Pradyumna is classified as a lālya-bhakta described ahead under the heading of gaurava-prīta-rasa.) Rāga is found in the ordinary anugas, but when rāga manifests in the vrajānugas it is mixed with a small portion of praṇaya and therefore displays symptoms of sakhya-bhāva.

Meeting and separation

In prīta-bhakti-rasa there are two conditions: (1) ayoga (separation) and (2) yoga (meeting).

(1) Ayoga

The absence of Kṛṣṇa’s association is called ayoga. In this condition all devotees experience various symptoms or anubhāvas such as deep absorption of the mind in Śrī Kṛṣṇa, searching out His qualities and thinking of some means by which He may be obtained. Ayoga is further divided into two parts: utkaṇṭhitva (anxious longing) and viyoga (separation). The desire to see Śrī Kṛṣṇa for the first time is called utkaṇṭhitva, anxious longing. When there is separation from Kṛṣṇa after having already attained His association, it is called viyoga.

In viyoga there are ten conditions:

  1. aṅga-tāpa (fever or burning of the limbs),
  2. kṛśatā (emaciation),
  3. jāgaraṇa (sleeplessness),
  4. ālambana-śūnyatā (absence of support or shelter for the mind),
  5. adhṛti (absence of fortitude or absence of attachment for all objects),
  6. jaḍatā (inertness),
  7. vyādhi (disease),
  8. unmāda (madness),
  9. mūrcchā (fainting) and
  10.  mṛti (death).

(2) Yoga

To be united with Kṛṣṇa is called yoga. Yoga is of three types: siddhi (perfection), tuṣṭi (satisfaction) and sthiti (residence). When after utkaṇṭhitva one meets Kṛṣṇa for the first time, it is called siddhi, perfection. When one is reunited with Kṛṣṇa after separation (viyoga) it is called tuṣṭi, satisfaction. To live together with Kṛṣṇa on a steady basis is called sthiti, residence.

(B) Gaurava-prīta-rasa

Having discussed sambhrama-prīta-rasa we will now describe gaurava-prīta-rasa. Gaurava-prīta-rasa is described as follows in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.144):

lālyābhimānināṁ kṛṣṇe
syāt prītir gauravottarā
sā vibhāvādibhiḥ puṣṭā
gaurava-prītir ucyate

 

Prīti or affection for Kṛṣṇa that is found in the sons of Kṛṣṇa, who cherish the conception of being brought up by Him, or those who consider themselves as younger brothers and so on, is called gauravottara-prīti (affection characterised by the reverence one has towards an elder). When this type of prīti (or in other words, kṛṣṇa-rati) is nourished by the corresponding elements of vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika-bhāva and vyabhicāri-bhāva, it is called gaurava-prīta-rasa.

Vibhāva

Viṣayālambana of gaurava-prīta-rasa

The viṣayālambana of gaurava-prīta-rasa is Śrī Kṛṣṇa who is endowed with the qualities of being the supreme guru, protector and maintainer, and who possesses great fame, intelligence and strength.

Āśrayālambana of gaurava-prīta-rasa

The āśrayālambana of gaurava-prīta-rasa are the lālya-bhaktas, those who are reared, nourished or cared for by Kṛṣṇa. Those who cherish the conception of being juniors and those who consider themselves as sons are both known as lālya-bhaktas. Sāraṇa, Gada and Subhadra are principal among those who consider themselves as juniors. Pradyumna, Cārudeṣṇa, Sāmba and other princes of the Yadu dynasty consider themselves as sons. Śrī Pradyumna, the son of Rukmiṇī, is the chief among all the lālya-bhaktas.

The devotees of both kinds – namely sambhrama-prīta-bhaktas and gaurava-prīta-bhaktas – always serve Kṛṣṇa with a reverential or respectful attitude. In the servants at Dvārakā, aiśvarya-jñāna or knowledge of the Lord’s majesty is predominant. In the lālya-bhaktas, sambandha-jñāna or knowledge of one’s relationship with Kṛṣṇa is predominant. The vrajānugas never consider Śrī Kṛṣṇa to be Parameśvara or the supreme controller. They are devoid of aiśvarya-jñāna. They consider Kṛṣṇa to be the son of the king of the cowherds (Goparāja-nandana). Nonetheless they are aware of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s opulence and power at having obtained victory over Indra. However, they do not consider this power to be due to His being Parameśvara; rather they consider it to be simply some extraordinary ability.

Uddīpana

Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s parental affection, mild smiling and glances are the uddīpanas of gaurava-prīta-rasa.

Anubhāva

To sit on a lower seat in Kṛṣṇa’s presence, to follow the directions of the guru and elders, to accept responsibilities given by Kṛṣṇa and to give up self-willed behaviour, are the anubhāvas of gaurava-prīta-rasa. There are other anubhāvas that the lālya-bhaktas share in common with other dāsya-bhaktas. These include offering praṇāma, frequently remaining silent, shyness, modesty, following the orders of Kṛṣṇa even to the extent of giving up one’s life, keeping one’s head lowered, steadiness, refraining from laughing or coughing in Kṛṣṇa’s presence, and desisting from talks of Kṛṣṇa’s confidential pastimes.

Sāttvika-bhāva

All eight sāttvika-bhāvas described previously are found in gaurava-prīta-rasa.

Vyabhicāri-bhāva

All the vyabhicāri-bhāvas that were described above in regard to sambhrama-prīta-rasa also apply here.

Sthāyibhāva

In Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.166–7) the sthāyibhāva of gaurava-prīta-rasa has been described as follows:

deha-sambandhitāmānād
gurudhīr atra gauravam
tan-mayī lālake prītir
gaurava-prītir ucyate
sthāyibhāvo ’tra sā
caiṣām āmūlāt svayam ucchritā
kaṁ cid viśeṣam āpannā
premeti sneha ity api
rāga ity ucyate cātra
gaurava-prītir eva sā

 

The veneration that arises towards an elder due to bodily relationship is called gaurava. In gaurava one has the conception of belonging to someone and one thinks, “He is my parent, elder or maintainer”. Prīti or affection towards Kṛṣṇa that is characterised by this type of veneration is called gaurava-prīti. This gaurava-prīti, manifesting itself in the heart of the devotee and then pervading his heart, is the sthāyibhāva of gaurava-prīta-rasa. When gaurava-prīti is augmented and attains a particular state, it is called prema. When prema is further augmented it attains the state of sneha, and when sneha is enhanced it attains the state of rāga.

The conditions known as ayoga and yoga and their various subdivisions described previously are also found in gaurava-prīta-rasa, sakhya-rasa and vātsalya-rasa.

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