Book excerpts Pinnacle of Devotion AUSPICIOUS INVOCATION 


anarpita-carīṁ cirāt karuṇayāvatīrṇaḥ kalau
samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasāṁ sva-bhakti-śriyam
hariḥ puraṭa-sundara-dyuti-kadamba-sandīpitaḥ
sadā hṛdaya-kandare sphuratu vaḥ śacī-nandanaḥ

(Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛtaĀdi-līlā 1.4)

May that Lord, who is known as the son of Śrīmatī Śacī-devī, be transcendentally situated in the innermost chambers of your heart. Resplendent with the radiance of molten gold, He has appeared in the age of Kali by His causeless mercy to bestow what no incarnation ever offered before: the most sublime and radiant mellow of devotional service, the mellow of conjugal love.

This verse, the maṅgalācaraṇa, auspicious invocation, of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Vidagdha-mādhava, was written by him in order to fulfill the wishes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

While Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī was traveling from Vṛndāvana to Jagannātha Purī, he came to a village named Satyabhāmāpura. There, in the final part of the night, he had a dream. If at this time of night a person wakes from a dream, the dream may be true, and for exalted devotees, certainly their dreams are true. Śrīmatī Rādhikā’s dreams, Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s dreams, and the dreams of pure devotees are never imaginary.

Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī dreamt that a celestially beautiful lady approached him and gave him this instruction:

āmāra nāṭaka pṛthak karaha racana
āmāra kṛpāte nāṭaka haibe vilakṣaṇa

(Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛtaAntya-līlā 1.42)

Write a separate drama about me,” she said. “By my mercy, it will be extraordinarily beautiful.” 

“Do not make one book, make two books: one for Vraja, and one for Dvārakā. Do not mix them.” Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī realized that this was actually Kṛṣṇa’s queen Satyabhāmā speaking to him.

After having that dream, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī considered, “It is the order of Satyabhāmā that I write a separate drama for her. I have brought together in one work all the pastimes performed by Lord Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana and in Dvārakā. Now I shall have to divide them into two dramas.”

(Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛtaAntya-līlā 1.43-44)

When he arrived in Purī, he met Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who gave him the same instruction: “Do not take Vrajendra-nandana Kṛṣṇa out of Vṛndāvana.”

On the next day, when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to see Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, the omniscient Lord spoke as follows: “Do not try to take Kṛṣṇa out of Vṛndāvana, for He does not go anywhere else at any time. The Kṛṣṇa known as Yadu-kumāra is Vāsudeva-Kṛṣṇa. He is different from the Kṛṣṇa who is the son of Nanda Mahārāja. Yadu-kumāra Kṛṣṇa manifests His pastimes in the cities of Mathurā and Dvārakā, but Kṛṣṇa the son of Nanda Mahārāja never at any time leaves Vṛndāvana.”

After saying this, Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to perform His noontime duties, leaving Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī somewhat surprised.

Satyabhāmā ordered me to write two different dramas,” Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī thought. “Now I understand that this order has been confirmed by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Formerly I wrote the two dramas as one composition. Now I shall divide it and describe the incidents in two separate works. I shall write two separate invocations of good fortune and two different introductions. Let me think deeply about the matter and then describe two different sets of incidents.»

(Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛtaAntya-līlā 1.65-71)

What is the meaning? One should not take Vṛndāvana Kṛṣṇa to Dvārakā and Mathurā. In tattva, Kṛṣṇa and His manifestations are all one; there is no difference at all. But by rasa-vicāra, by the vision of rasa, Vrajendra-nandana (Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana as the son of Nanda Mahārāja) and Vasudeva-nandana (Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Dvārakā as the son of Vasudeva Mahārāja) are not the same. An ordinary person or a kaniṣṭhā-adhikārī could not have understood this, but Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī grasped the meaning at once. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī is an uttama-adhikārī and of course all tattvas are revealed to him, but even a madhyama-adhikārī in the line of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī can understand this principle.

In Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s first book, Vidagdha-mādhava, he wrote the maṅgalācaraṇa beginning anarpita carim carat. While he lived in Purī, he resided in the cottage of Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura. Haridāsa Ṭhākura was so humble that he would not go to the Jagannātha temple for darśana. Instead, he offered his full obeisances from afar. “I am so wretched,” he considered. “As a Muslim, I have no good qualities and I am impure.” Following the humble mentality of Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī considered, “Because I am the servant of a Muslim king, I am also like a Muslim.”

One day, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu came to Haridāsa Ṭhākura’s cottage with all His associates, including Nityānanda Prabhu, Advaita Ācārya, Svarūpa Dāmodara and Rāya Rāmānanda, to meet with Rūpa Gosvāmī. In that very learned assembly, Rāya Rāmānanda asked, “What books are you writing? Please show us. Please recite the first verse, themaṅgalācaraṇa.”

Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya said, “Now please recite the description of the glories of your worshipable Deity.” Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī hesitated due to embarrassment because Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was present. The Lord, however, encouraged Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, saying, “Why are you embarrassed? You should recite it so the devotees can hear the good fruit of your writing.”

(Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛtaAntya-līlā 1.129-130)

Although Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī was very learned, because of his humility he was shy and did not want to show his writing. However, when the devotees asked repeatedly, he agreed and recited the śloka:

anarpita-carīṁ cirāt karuṇayāvatīrṇaḥ kalau
samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasāṁ sva-bhakti-śriyam
hariḥ puraṭa-sundara-dyuti-kadamba-sandīpitaḥ
sadā hṛdaya-kandare sphuratu vaḥ śacī-nandanaḥ

(Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛtaĀdi-līlā 1.4)

May that Lord, who is known as the son of Śrīmatī Śacī-devī, be transcendentally situated in the innermost chambers of your heart. Resplendent with the radiance of molten gold, He has appeared in the age of Kali by His causeless mercy to bestow what no incarnation ever offered before: the most sublime and radiant mellow of devotional service, the mellow of conjugal love.

Everyone became so happy to hear this. “How beautiful,” they all said. “This verse is full of correct philosophical conclusions (siddhānta). We have never heard anything like this. We have heard so many verses, but never one like this.”

When Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī thus recited his verse, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu disapproved of it because it described His personal glories. He expressed the opinion that it was an exaggerated explanation.

(Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛtaAntya-līlā 1.131)

Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “It is not a good verse. The first three lines of this verse are so beautiful, but ‘sphuratu vaḥ śacī-nandana – May that Lord, who is known as the son of Śrīmatī Śacī-devī, be transcendentally situated in the innermost chambers of your heart,’ is like poison in milk. It has spoiled the whole thing.”

Svarūpa Dāmodara disagreed: “This fourth line has made the verse like condensed milk with camphor or miśri (sugar candy). This fourth line has made it so much more tasteful.”

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then told all the devotees, “Be merciful to Rūpa Gosvāmī, so that he may know My heart and fulfill all My desires.”

Rare And Valuable

Why did Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja take this verse as one of the maṅgalācaraṇa verses of his own Caitanya-caritāmṛta? He was such a greatly learned person that he could have written hundreds of verses in a very short time – in a moment. He has written so many other verses in Caitanya-caritāmṛta, and he has also written Govinda-līlāmṛta, which contains more than a thousand verses. Also, in his other books he has composed numerous excellent verses. Why then did he use this verse written by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī?

Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja humbly thought, “I am an ordinary person; I have no bhakti at all. Undoubtedly Rūpa Gosvāmī, who is Rūpa Mañjarī in Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes1, is a siddha-mahāpuruṣa, a perfect, self-realized soul. His glorification and prayers to Kṛṣṇa will be more effective and more powerful than mine.”

In the same way, if we recite the prayers of devotees like Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, Rūpa Gosvāmī, and Svarūpa Dāmodara, this will have more transcendental potency than if we invent our own. We do not sing kīrtanas of persons who are not qualified in devotion. Even though such persons may be able to create very ornamental language in English, Hindi, Bengali, or Sanskrit, still we do not sing their songs. We only sing the songs of authentic Vaiṣṇavas. By singing and praying in this way, surely our worshipable Deity will be happy.

Anarpitam-carīṁ cirātAnarpita means ‘not given’ and cirāt means ‘for a long time.’ What is it that has not been given? And what is that long period? That long period is Lord Brahmā’s one day, which contains so many of our Earth years. Four-hundred-thirty-two-thousand years (432,000 years) is the duration of Kali-yuga. Twice this (432,000 x 2 = 864,000 years) is the duration of Dvāpura-yuga, thrice this (432,000 x 3 = 1,296,000 years) makes Tretā-yuga, and four times this (432,000 x 4 = 1,728,000 years) make Satya-yuga. These fouryugas taken together are called a catur-yuga. One catur-yuga lasts for 4,320,000 years.

This same cycle of four yugas multiplied by seventy-one is one manvantara (4,320,000 x 71 = 306,720,000 years), and there are fourteen manvantaras2 in a day of Brahmā. In this way there are so many years in one day of Brahmā (4,294,080,000 years), and the same period is the length of his night.

It had been this long since Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had come and given unalloyed unnatojjvala-rasāṁ sva-bhakti-śriyam. We are very fortunate to have taken birth only five hundred years after Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His followers. It is only about four hundred years since the time of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī, and two-hundred-fifty years since Śrīla Narottama Ṭhākura and Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura.

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura lived one hundred years ago. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura left this world in 1937; it is therefore only sixty years since he has disappeared from our worldly vision. It is only thirty years since our Gurudeva Śrīla Bhakti Prajñāna Keśava Gosvāmī Mahārāja disappeared, twenty years since Śrīla Bhaktivedānta Svāmī Mahārāja disappeared, and Śrīla Bhakti Rakṣaka Śrīdhara Mahārāja left only about ten years ago.3

We are therefore very fortunate. Neglecting to understand and follow the teachings of our ācāryas and trying for this unnatojjvala-rasāṁ sva-bhakti-śriyam means that perhaps millions of births will pass before we are allowed again this opportunity. On the other hand, if in this birth we go to a bona fide guru and become qualified, we may take our next birth on the planet and in the place where Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu enacted His pastimes only two hundred years ago – that is, at the time of Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura or Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura.

Our birth after that may be where and when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu Himself is performing His pastimes with His associates. We must try to understand these truths and not think that this verse (anarpita-carīṁ cirāt) is false propaganda. It is as bona fide as Kṛṣṇa Himself.

In this above-mentioned auspicious invocation, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī writes, karuṇayāvatīrṇaḥ kalau. In Kali-yuga, Śrī Kṛṣṇa as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu came to this world along with His associates, during the seventh manvantara4. Twenty-seven catur-yuga cycles of Satya-yuga, Tretā-yuga, Dvāpara-yuga, and Kali-yuga had passed, and it was during the twenty-eighth catur-yuga cycle that He appeared.

Why did He come? Samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasāṁ sva-bhakti-śriyamSamarpayitum means ‘to give.’ What did Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu come to give? He gave that very precious and rare gift, which is desired even by Brahmā, Śaṅkara, Nārada, and Śukadeva Gosvāmī.

The Mood of Vṛndāvana

Śrī Uddhava, who is Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s dear friend, minister, and advisor, also wants this precious mood. He went to Vṛndāvana upon Kṛṣṇa’s request, where he realized the glories of Nanda Bābā, Yaśodā, and the gopīs, and especially the glories of Śrīmatī Rādhikā. On one hand he became very happy to realize their glories, but at the same time he felt practically hopeless.

We may be pleased to see Mount Everest, which is about thirty thousand feet high, but we cannot imagine what it would be like to be that high. We would become hopeless if we try to compare ourselves with such a height. Similarly, when Uddhava came to Vraja from Mathurā and saw the gopīs, Yaśodā, and Nanda Bābā exhibit their height of love for Kṛṣṇa, he could not fathom such love. When he entered Nanda Bābā’s home, he saw him weeping in separation from Śrī Kṛṣṇa, whom Nanda Bābā considered to be his own son.

Uddhava wondered, “How is this? Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is greater than Nārāyaṇa, Rāma, and all other incarnations. He has mercifully come to Nanda’s house and is like a son to him, but actually He is not the son of anyone. He is neither the son of Vasudeva and Devakī, nor of Nanda and Yaśodā. How strange that Nanda thinks Kṛṣṇa to be his son.”

Nanda Bābā then asked Uddhava, “Will Kṛṣṇa return? Does He remember us?” And he began to weep loudly. “I want to forget Kṛṣṇa,” he said, “and for this reason I go to the bank of Yamunā. But there I see so many trees and creepers, and Yamunā-devī herself, all telling me the history of Kṛṣṇa’s childhood. Every place and every living creature there reminds me of Kṛṣṇa.” For example, Nanda would see Kṛṣṇa’s footprints in one place, and in another place he would remember how Kṛṣṇa roamed with the cows and how the cows automatically gave milk without being milked.

Nanda Bābā explained to Uddhava how he wanted to console his heart and forget Kṛṣṇa, how he had left his home and gone to various places in Vṛndāvana. He lamented that because all the trees in these places were continually crying, “Kṛṣṇa! Kṛṣṇa!” they made him think of Kṛṣṇa even more intensely. He explained how he had gone to rāsa-līlā-sthalī, Vaṁśīvaṭa, Bhāṇḍīravana, Kālīya-hrada-ghāṭa, and then to Govardhana, which had been previously lifted by Kṛṣṇa, but all of these places were also crying. Even the particles of dust were crying for Kṛṣṇa. Thus, Nanda Bābā had been weeping so continuously that he could never take any rest.

Hearing this, Uddhava told Nanda Bābā how fortunate he and Yaśodā were to consider Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as their very loving son. “And you are very affectionate to Him,” he said. “Sometimes you chastised Him, bound Him, and rebuked Him. You are so fortunate.”

Nanda Bābā replied, “Uddhava, previously I had thought that because you have Kṛṣṇa’s association you must be a very qualified person, but now I see that you are ignorant and foolish, with no knowledge at all.

“You say I am so fortunate, but actually I am the most wretched person in this world. You say that Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If this is so, it means that I could not please that Supreme Personality when He was living with me, and this is why He left me and went to Mathurā. Then, to make matters worse, I could not die of separation while crying out my son’s name, as Mahārāja Daśaratha died when his son Rāma left his palace. I am not a good father.” And again Nanda Bābā began to weep.

Uddhava thought, “Oh, I should not have spoken to Nanda Bābā like this. It was certainly foolish of me.”

Uddhava, the most exalted personality in the Vṛṣṇi dynasty, was very intelligent and sharp in making decisions. He was Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s private secretary, His prime minister, servant, and loving friend. But in this situation he was confused as to whether or not he had acted correctly. He thought, “I have come to console Nanda Bābā, Yaśodā, and the Vrajavāsīs, but their bitter weeping is their good fortune. I know that I am not wrong to think in this way, because scripture confirms that if even one tear comes in the eye of someone crying for Śrī Kṛṣṇa, he is certainly fortunate. Nanda Bābā is weeping, so he is truly fortunate. To tell him to stop would be against śāstra. But I have also made a mistake in encouraging him to weep, because when he weeps he suffers so much. How can I pacify him? What shall I do?”

Uddhava’s knowledge of the scriptures describing the fortune of those who cry incessantly for Kṛṣṇa was only theoretical, not practical, and for this reason he had thought it incorrect to encourage Nanda to continue weeping. He had considered this great ecstasy to be suffering. This was a very critical moment for Uddhava, who is our authority and a great devotee, but who had now become completely dumbfounded.

The Gopīs’ Separation

Uddhava spent the entire night speaking with Nanda Bābā and Yaśodā-maiyā. Then, in the morning, he went to console the gopīs in a nearby garden. This garden is presently called Uddhava-kyārī.

When the gopīs saw Uddhava, they thought he was Akrūra, Kṛṣṇa’s uncle, who had come to Vṛndāvana months earlier and had driven Kṛṣṇa to Mathurā on his chariot. The only ‘outsider’ they had seen before was Akrūra, so they thought this outside person must be that same Akrūra. The word Akrūra means ‘not cruel-hearted.’ The gopīs thought it ironic that his name was Akrūra, because they considered him to be very cruel for taking Kṛṣṇa away from them. “Akrūra has again come to this place,” they assumed. “But he has already taken Kṛṣṇa to Mathurā. Kṛṣṇa is not here, so what is his purpose in coming here again in the same golden chariot?

“Oh, it must be that Kṛṣṇa has sent him to let all the elderly gopas and gopīs know that He is no longer their son, but He is now the emperor of Mathurā. He has sent Akrūra on that golden chariot to show us that He is an important person; He is no longer a mere cowherd boy, poor and without shoes and other opulent apparel. To show off His grandeur, He has sent His servant.”

One gopī said, “I see that he is śyāma (of blackish color), but he is not Śyāma5. He is black, but he is not that same black person. He has taken Kṛṣṇa’s color, ornaments, pītāmbara (yellow cloth), and other paraphernalia, but he is not Kṛṣṇa.”

Śrīmatī Rādhikā, who is always in the highest stage of mahābhāva6,did not actually see Uddhava. In Her madness of separation from Kṛṣṇa, She began to speak with a bumblebee, thinking that he, the bee, was Kṛṣṇa’s messenger.

“You have come drinking wine,” She said to the bumblebee.

Bumblebee, you are accustomed to drinking honey from the flowers, and therefore you have preferred to be a messenger of Kṛṣṇa, who is of the same nature as you. I have seen on your moustache the red powder of kuṅkuma which was smeared on the flower garland of Kṛṣṇa while He was pressing the breast of some other girl who is My competitor. You feel very proud because of having touched that garland, and your moustache has become reddish. You have come here carrying a message for Me, anxious to touch My feet. But My dear bumblebee, let Me warn you – don’t touch Me! I don’t want any messages from your unreliable master. You are the unreliable servant of an unreliable master.

(Kṛṣṇa, The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Chapter 46)

Sometimes Śrīmatī Rādhikā was laughing, sometimes joking, and sometimes She was criticizing Kṛṣṇa for being guilty of leaving them and going to Mathurā. Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who was present in the form of the bee, tasted Her mood of ecstatic separation.

In this way, we see that Kṛṣṇa tasted the moods of both separation and meeting. He tasted dāsya-rasasakhyā-rasavātsalya-rasa, and śṛṅgāra-rasa (mādhurya-rasa). He tasted the love He felt from all His associates and devotees, and this has all been described in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Why, then, did He come to this world? He was already enjoying in Goloka Vraja.

Two Kinds of Vraja

There are two features of Vṛndāvana. One is Goloka Vṛndāvana, and the other is Bhauma Vṛndāvana, Vraja on this Earth. In this universe there are many millions of planets, of which we cannot count the number. Even Brahmā cannot count them, nor can Saṅkarṣaṇa, (a manifestation of Balarāma) who is the father and creator of all. Even if Saṅkarṣaṇa could count them, no other personality could do so. In every universe Vraja is manifested, and each Vraja is called Bhauma Vṛndāvana.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa is always in Goloka Vṛndāvana, sporting with all His associates like Śrīmatī Rādhikā, Lalitā, Viśākhā, Citra, Candrāvalī, Śyāmalā, Bhadrā, and others like them. He plays with friends like Śrīdāma, Sudāma, Vasudāma, Stoka-kṛṣṇa, Labaṅga, and Arjuna, and He also performs pastimes with His parents, Nanda and Yaśodā. All these devotees are present in Goloka Vṛndāvana, and at the same time they are also present with Kṛṣṇa in various universes, traveling with Him as in a roadshow.7

There is no difference between all the manifestations of Vraja in this material world and Vraja in Goloka. They are non-different and different at the same time, a transcendental truth called acintya-bhedābheda-tattva. The manifestations of Vraja in this material world are real; they are manifestations of that Goloka Vraja. Therefore, if they are real, and if they are non-different, why do we want to go to Goloka Vṛndāvana?

There is also a difference, and it is necessary that we carefully understand this difference. In this Bhauma Vṛndāvana, siddha (fully perfected devotees) and asiddha (not yet perfect) devotees all saw Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes. Duryodhana could also see some pastimes, but he could not understand Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s identity. He thought the Lord to be an ordinary son of a gopa, an ordinary cowherd boy.

Nārada Muni sees Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and always offers Him his prostrated obeisances. However, when He went to Vraja, Bhauma Vṛndāvana, Yaśodā-maiyā brought her darling son and placed Him at his feet. Yaśodā-maiyā took his foot-dust and said, “Your foot-dust will protect Kṛṣṇa.”

Hearing this from Yaśodā-maiyā, Nārada thought, “I should not make any problems for Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes by showing that I consider Him the Supreme Lord. Let His Vraja pastimes continue.” Seeing the glories of Nanda Bābā, Yaśodā-maiyā, and the gopīs, Nārada was trembling, fearing that he might commit an offense. He feared that if he would tell Yaśodā-maiyā that Kṛṣṇa is God, Kṛṣṇa might become angry because His nara-līlā (human-like pastimes) would be disturbed. Yaśodā-maiyā knew more tattva (established philosophical truths) than Nārada, but due to the influence of Yogamāyā, she considered Kṛṣṇa her little boy who needed to become healthy and intelligent, and who needed to have any possible inauspiciousness driven away by the dust of Nārada’s feet. 

Different classes of devotees can enter in the Lord’s pastimes in this Bhauma Vṛndāvana, whether or not they are siddha. However, after some years, the pastimes disappear and are no longer visible to persons of this world. Only siddha devotees, those whose love and affection have been perfected, can go to Goloka Vṛndāvana, where they will live forever and never have to return to this world. Being in Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s association, all spiritual beings, including those who are kāya-vyūha (expansions), sādhana-siddha, and nitya-siddha, will never, never, never take a material body in this world.

They will never become opposed to Kṛṣṇa. Because there is no māyā in Goloka Vṛndāvana, they can never forget Kṛṣṇa. Only Yogamāyā is there in the spiritual realm, helping the devotees to increase their prema for Kṛṣṇa by arranging opportunities for them to serve Him. Because there is no chance of falling from Goloka Vṛndāvana, which is siddha-bhūmi, no conditioned soul in this world has come from there. Rather, they have come from the taṭasthā line,8 from Kāraṇodakaśāyī Viṣṇu.

In order to help the jīvas by bestowing the greatest benediction (samarpayitum), Śrī Kṛṣṇa comes here as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. I have given the explanation of this one word, samarpayitum. Once in Brahmā’s day, Kṛṣṇa comes to give a rare, special prema.

1 “In the Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (Verse 180) Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī is described to be the gopī named Śrī Rūpa Mañjarī” (Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Ādi-līlā 10.84, purport).

2Manvantara means a change of Manus” (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 2.10.1).

“All the Manus are empowered incarnations of Kṛṣṇa (manvantara-avatāra). There are fourteen Manus in one day of Brahmā and 420 in one month. All the Manus are directors of human society” (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 4.24.42, purport).

“Each Manu lives 4,320,000 years multiplied by 71. The present Manu has already lived for 4,320,000 years multiplied by 28” (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 4.30.49, purport).

3 This lecture was spoken 1997, so the number of years mentioned in this paragraph were counted starting from this year.

4 “According to astronomical calculations, we are now in the twenty-eighth yuga of Vaivasvata Manu (also known as Śrāddhadeva). Each Manu lives for seventy-one yugas, and fourteen such Manus rule in one day of Lord Brahmā. We are now in the period of Vaivavata Manu, the seventh Manu, and the eighth Manu will come into existence after many millions of years” (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 8.13.11, purport).

5 Śyāma is another name for Śrī Kṛṣṇa, meaning that He is blackish, like a fresh rain-cloud.

6 “There is a supreme symptom of ecstatic love, which is called mahābhāva. This mahābhāva expression was possible only in Rādhārāṇī. But later on, when Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya appeared to feel the mode of love of Rādhārāṇī, He also expressed all of the symptoms of mahābhāva” (Nectar of Devotion, Chapter 28).

“A person engaged in devotional service becomes heartsick when singing the glories of the Supreme Lord. Because the Lord is very dear to him, when he glorifies the Lord’s name, fame, and so on, he becomes almost like an insane person. In that condition he sometimes laughs, sometimes cries, and sometimes dances. He continues in this way without even considering his situation. By gradually developing his love of Godhead, he increases his affection, his emotion, and his ecstasy. Such attachment, mahābhāva, is the highest stage of devotional love. It may be likened to sugar candy, which is the most powerful form of sugar. Love of Godhead can gradually develop in such a way that transcendental pleasure is increased to the highest stage for the real devotee” (Teachings of Lord Caitanya, Chapter 13).

7 “Lord Kṛṣṇa, as He is, appears once every twenty-four hours of Brahmā’s time (or after a lapse of 8,640,000,000 solar years) in each and every universe, and all His transcendental pastimes are displayed in each and every universe in a routine spool” (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 1.14.8, purport).

8 “According to Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Bhagavad-gītā, and all other Vedic literatures, the living entities are generated from the taṭasthāenergy of the Lord, and thus they are always the energy of the Lord and are not the energetic” (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 3.7.9, purport).

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